LONDON: A container ship is unloaded at the Port of Immingham operated by Associated British Ports (ABP) on the south bank of the Humber Estuary, eastern England. Maritime freight volumes have dropped in the last year due to protectionism and the weakening of international commerce.—AFP

Credit ratings agency Moody's on Friday downgraded the outlook for Britain's
debt, citing mounting policy challenges amid the Brexit debate. The agency cut
the outlook to negative from stable but kept the debt at the investment grade
Aa2. The ratings agency Fitch had similarly put Britain on "negative
watch" in February. Pointing to "paralysis that has characterized the
Brexit-era policymaking process," Moody's said London has "struggled
to cope with the magnitude of policy challenges that they currently face."

In addition,
Britain's "economic and fiscal strength are likely to be weaker going
forward and more susceptible to shocks than previously assumed," Moody's
said in a statement. Britons voted by 52 percent to leave the European Union in
a 2016 referendum, but MPs have been divided over how, when and even if that
result should be delivered. The political wrangling has forced two successive
Conservative governments to ask the European Union to delay Brexit three times
this year.

It is now set for
January 31. Current Tory Prime Minister Boris Johnson hopes the snap election
next month will give him a majority in the House of Commons to allow him to
ratify his exit terms and finally leave the EU. "Over the longer term,
institutional weakening may also impact the UK's economic strength, through its
effect on the investment climate and on the UK's attractiveness to skilled and
unskilled foreign labor," Moody's said.

"In recent
years, we have already seen the negative impact this can have, and Moody's
expects this negative influence will likely endure as the exit process
continues and uncertainties persist during the subsequent phase of trade
negotiations with the EU and with other nations."

Britain remains
highly indebted and this was unlikely to change in the next three to four
years, according to Moody's. In a toughly worded statement, Moody's said the
fissures in Britain's society and politics exposed by its still-unresolved
decision to leave the European Union would be long-lasting. "It would be
optimistic to assume that the previously cohesive, predictable approach to
legislation and policymaking in the UK will return once Brexit is no longer a
contentious issue, however that is achieved," the ratings agency said.

Moody's said
Britain's 1.8 trillion pounds ($2.30 trillion) of public debt - more than 80
percent of annual economic output - risked rising again and the economy could
be "more susceptible to shocks than previously assumed." Both of the
main political parties have promised big spending increases ahead of next
month's election.

"In the
current political climate, Moody's sees no meaningful pressure for
debt-reducing fiscal policies," the ratings agency said. Prime Minister Boris
Johnson called the Dec. 12 election in an attempt to break the deadlock over
how, and even if, the country should leave the EU, more than three years after
the Brexit referendum.

Moody's said the
"increasing inertia and, at times, paralysis that has characterized the
Brexit-era policymaking process" showed how the UK's institutional
framework has diminished. Even once Britain was out of the EU, uncertainty
would remain because of the "significant challenges" of reaching a
future trade deal with the bloc, it said. Any signs that Britain was unable to
replicate the benefits of EU membership with trade deals in Europe and beyond
would also be negative for the rating.

Moody's, which
stripped the country of its AAA rating in 2013 and downgraded it again in 2017,
said it was lowering the outlook on Britain's current Aa2 rating to negative
from stable, meaning the rating could be cut again. At Aa2, Britain is on the
same level as France but below Germany's AAA rating by Moody's.

Moody's said the
government, after reducing a budget deficit which leapt to 10 percent of GDP in
2010, had been increasingly willing to "move the goalposts" on making
further progress.

governments have announced large, permanent increases in public expenditures,
most notably a large increase in spending on the National Health Service,
outside the normal calendar for fiscal policy changes and without detailed
policy plans," it said. Last month, ratings agency Standard & Poor's
said it would cut Britain's AA credit rating if the country leaves the EU
without a deal, and it, too, warned that Brexit indecision was causing
government paralysis. - Agencies